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Friday, August 6, 2010

Ornamental flowers and Type

Ornamental flowers are generally divided into five types. This is to facilitate the fan interest in choosing the types of flowers that will be purchased. Ornamental flower types also allows us to determine the appropriate interest rate component for the assembled. Beautiful flower arrangements and have a perfect composition able to look pretty and gives a magnificent effect for anyone who enjoyed it.

1. Standard or a single flower. Each flower has only flowers. For example: Rose and Gerbera.
2. Head or the head (head shape). This is similar to the standard form, the tip of the stem consists of some bud that resembles a flower bud. For example: Lily purple (Agaphantus)
3. Spray, each stem has several branches that stem berbuga. Aster and lisianthus are examples of this type.
4. Spike, the long-stemmed flowers that hardly stemmed flowerets and place in rows on one side or around the stem length. For example: Gladioulus, Sedapa Night, Snapdragon.
5. Umbrella, namely the end of the flower stalks have several-stemmed florets. Bud was spread to all directions and form a flat surface. Examples are fennel flowers.

Rose and Carnation Flowers can be obtained in two types, namely the standard type (single flower) and the type of spray. Specific types of spray, generally smaller flowers and available in limited colors.

Sansevieria, absorbing plant toxins

Beautiful plants and unsightly eye precisely in its natural habitat is tropical dry (hot desert climate and barren mountains), has the advantage that is rarely found in other plants. Sansevieria have a common characteristic of storing water in all parts of the body in large amounts, has a rhizome, leaf thickness, and tip of a pointed or prickly leaves. By the researcher often called the Pilot plant (Old Century plant), which is an ancient plant able to survive when the plants from other families can not survive within a very barren, or against the relatively extreme temperature changes

Chinese people see beauty Sansevieria of fragrant flowers that smelled so called by Mr Ian, sweet mei lan, ylang ylang, and jasmine.

Chinese people have 8 good looking Sansevieria plants;
1.Kesuburan (does not require special growing media),
2.Panjang age (resistant to extreme conditions as well as anti-pollutant),
3.Kecerdasan (could mutation of form and color),
4.Seni (can dibonsai and in the grouping),
5.Yin-Yang (......),
6.Kecantikan (having unique shapes and colors and some even can reflect light),
7.Kekuatan (the vertical growth of the ground or in pots), as well as
8.Kemakmuran (Undertaking lambing either from rhizomes or leaf cuttings, even a child is able to penetrate the soil and pot).

It is said that the results of research conducted by the United States Space Agency (NASA) show that 107 species Sanseiveira capable of absorbing hazardous substances. Other research concludes that for an area of 100 m3 room enough adults placed Sansevieria Lorentii leafy five strands so that the room is free of pollutants.

Specific characteristics which are rarely found in other plants, diiantaranya able to live in this temperature range and a broad light, highly resistant to harmful air gases (pollutants), even in areas capable of absorbing so berlalulintas solid and in a room filled with smoke nicotine is used as antipolutan (air freshener). While in Africa the sap is used as an antitoxin Sansevieria snakes and insects.

Another fact about the Sansevieria is:

1. Sanse remove oxygen and able to absorb the smell / pollution of the surrounding 24 hours continuously.
2. Besides its use for plant open dilahan Outdoors, can also be grown indoor because it can survive long enough without sunlight.
3. Sansevieria species more definite name because his gift comes from researchers.
4. Protected by the International Organization for agencies in their own habitat sanseiviera already threatened with extinction.
5. Until recently acclaimed ornamental plants / have a formal organization that is Bonsai, Orchids & Sansevieria (Sansevieria Sociaty International)
6. Can shape and color mutations
7. Scarcity of some types of Sansevieria is a challenge for the Hobis to chase the deer and have it so that the issue price duakan dinomor

leather waste corn in magic became ornamental plants

There was a woman in Malang, East Java, skin turn corn into a variety of ornamental flowers. Weni At home, the craftsman, in Gondang Legi, Malang, there are dozens of colorful species of ornamental flowers. There are several types of replicas of tropical flowers like roses, jasmine, dahlias, lily, tulip sun to living in the Netherlands.
Overview of ornamental plants is very similar to the original. Though ornamental flowers are made from leather waste corn. Membuatnyapun way too easy, the skin dry corn boiled in colored liquid. After the dried corn leather printed with various motifs of leaves and flowers. Having assembled this cornhusk changed into quite a beautiful flower. Previously unimaginable if the artwork is derived from the garbage as we deem useless.

Sales turnover of the business that started this hobby continues to grow until it reaches USD 50 million per month. The high turnover of sales was fueled huge demand from overseas markets. So do not underestimate the garbage that is around us, especially when you have an idea to use it as a medium for creativity.

Anthurium, a plant high-value

Anthurium Care
Anthurium relatively easily cultivated. Have a high selling value, and great potential for trade. Anthurium can be developed throughout the year. Can be cultured in the room with the temperature and conditions.
To grow a good view, anthurium requires temperatures of around 25-32 degrees Celsius in the daytime, and 21-24 degrees Celsius at night.
When the temperature is above 32 degrees Celsius, can cause burning of leaves and branches, pale, and if the less fortunate plants will die.
The cold night air (40-10 degrees Celsius), will cause slow-growing and the emergence of yellow spots on leaves. This plant is not suitable in very cold temperatures / freezing.

Anthurium require growing media and watering enough. Planting media must contain the manure and the roots of ferns. The young plants do not need much water, but should be sufficiently moist. Pot size must also be appropriate, so that plant growth is not hampered.

Before the drought anthurium roots around the roots, plants should be watered again. Because if the roots are too dry will cause the leaves turn yellow and pale.

Light / Radiation
Anthurium indoor should get enough sunlight. But do not be taxable in langsung.Kekurangan ray of sunlight will mentebabkan plant growth slows. These plants require a moist habitat. When the sun hit directly, so as not to burn you can use paranet 60%.

Fertilization is a keyword for the hope of anthurium grown rapidly in a short wkatu. You can use solid Dekastar large number of suitable plants / many roots. Can you give a dose once in five months. And to remember is, fertilizing should be balanced enough radiation.

Pests and Diseases
Pests and diseases can interfere with plant growth. Which can be found among butterflies, grasshoppers, and caterpillars. The common pests that eat the young leaves begin to grow. Sometimes just a hole, but sometimes leaves eaten until exhausted.
The best method by eliminating remedy these constraints is to oversee the plant well. Discard caterpillar, butterfly, or grasshopper attached leaves before consuming. Soap insects may be used to drive small insects, but for grasshoppers and caterpillars, it takes a stronger insecticide.
Steps can be taken to prevent this is to periodically spray water on the leaves.
Congratulations to plant anthurium.



Anthuriums relatif mudah tumbuh, memiliki dedaunan menarik dan dibawah lingkungan yang tepat, menghasilkan bunga tahan lama sepanjang tahun. Komersial, panci Anthuriums jenis ditanam di seluruh dunia dengan konsentrasi terbesar di Amerika Serikat (Florida) dan Belanda. Mereka tahan lama dan akan bertahan sebagai tanaman dalam ruangan dedaunan untuk jangka waktu yang luar biasa, bahkan di bawah conditions.Anthuriums merugikan tumbuh terbaik dengan suhu hari 78-90 F, dan malam suhu 70-75 F. Suhu di atas 90 F dapat menyebabkan daun terbakar, warna bunga memudar, dan kehidupan bunga dikurangi. Malam suhu antara 40-50 F dapat mengakibatkan pertumbuhan yang lambat dan permukaan bawah daun menguning. Anthuriums tidak akan mentolerir embun beku atau kondisi beku.

Anthuriums lebih menyukai media tanam yang kasar dan dikeringkan dengan baik. Media pot harus memiliki dasar gambut dengan rasio 01:01:01 lumut gambut, kulit pohon pinus dan perlit. Tanaman youong ketika mereka harus ditanam dalam campuran yang tidak terlalu kasar, untuk mempertahankan kelembaban. tanah harus diselesaikan dengan tegas di sekitar akar dan sistem root harus mengisi pot tanaman sebelum melangkah sampai dengan ukuran pot yang lebih besar.

Sementara Anthuriums mampu menangani kekeringan di sekitar akar bola, mereka harus disiram secara menyeluruh dan dibiarkan kering sebelum penyiraman sedikit lagi. Membiarkan tanaman mengering akan sangat memperlambat siklus pertumbuhan. Kering juga dapat menyebabkan ujung untuk membakar dan akar kerusakan, sedangkan penyiraman di atas juga dapat menyebabkan kerusakan akar dan daun menguning tiba-tiba.

Anthuriums sebagai aturan (dalam ruangan) akan memakan waktu sekitar cahaya sebanyak yang Anda bisa memberi mereka-tapi tidak terkena sinar matahari langsung. tingkat cahaya rendah akan memperlambat atau menghentikan produksi bunga. Spesies jenis dedaunan akan mentolerir tingkat cahaya rendah saat mereka tumbuh di beberapa daerah shasiest di habitat alami mereka. Daun yang muncul di bawah sinar yang lebih rendah dapat meregangkan dan / atau menjadi terdistorsi.

cepat kata pada gizi. Sebagian besar petani menggunakan pupuk slow release waktu pada tanaman mereka. Pemupukan sebaiknya tidak menjadi masalah untuk beberapa bulan. Jika Anda akan memupuk, menggunakan solusi cahaya rasio 03:01:02 dan barangkali terbaik untuk mencairkan ke 1 / 4 kekuatan.


Anthuriums yang rentan terhadap hama biasa yang kunjungi tanaman indoor, seperti kutu daun, timbangan, mealybugs dan thrips. Thrips dan "mulut manis" ditemukan lebih pada pertumbuhan baru. Anda juga dapat menemukan afid makan pada kuncup bunga. Timbangan tampaknya sangat menyukai jenis sarang burung tangguh. Metode terbaik untuk mengendalikan serangga adalah untuk memantau tanaman Anda dan memperlakukan mereka sebelum mereka keluar dari tangan. Ada beberapa "sabun insektisida" yang bekerja dengan baik pada serangga lunak, namun skala mungkin memerlukan insektisida kuat. Di bawah tungau laba-laba kondisi kelembaban rendah mungkin muncul. Salah satu cara terbaik untuk menjauhi penggunaan bahan kimia adalah dengan menyeka periodik dedaunan dan lembut sparay air. Pastikan untuk tidak melupakan masalah penyakit terbesar undersides.The bahwa Anda akan menghadapi RHIZOCTINIA dalam ruangan tertutup. Hal ini disebabkan oleh suhu tinggi dan kelembaban digabungkan dengan tanah yang buruk dikeringkan. Jangan di atas air dan jika Anda harus menanam kembali, menggunakan tanah juga dikeringkan, untuk itu akan menjadi pertahanan terbaik Anda. Kimia, RHIZOCTINIA dapat dikontrol dengan berbagai fungisida. Pendekatan terbaik adalah pencegahan melalui praktek-praktek budaya

Dahlia Flower Cultivation

Dahlia is an ornamental flowering plant in the form of an erect annual plant. This herb comes from the mountains of Mexico. Dahlia including ornamental plants cultivated late. In Europe farming began in 1789, from the Royal Botanical Garden in Madrid, Spain and spread throughout Western Europe. Although progress is very slow, in the year 1841 there were already 1200 varieties. Dahlia imported to the West Java from the Netherlands in the colonial period to the 19th century.

Currently dahlias be cut flower commodity / flower pot that is important in many parts of the world. Abroad, this interest has thus formed a prospective observer groups such as flower dahlia Dahlia Society of India, the National Dahlia Society of the United Kingdom and the American Dahlia Society.
Dahlia plant botanical classification is as follows: Divisions: spermatophytes
Sub Division: Angiospermae
Class: Dicotyledonae
Family: Compositae
Genus: Dahlia
Species: Dahlia spp. L.

Cultivated plants of Dahlia Dahlia tree can reach a few feet and a bushy plants (woody plants but still low). Dahlia flower colors: white, yellow, orange, violet, red, purple or other substances. The smallest flower diameter of about 5 cm while the largest of about 30 cm. Dahlia species existing today is D. pinnata, D variabilis, D. Coccine, D. juarezii.

Cactus dahlia flowers that are white are always traded as a kind of flower that is widely used for flower arranging grief. Another type of rich color Dahlia (dahlia dahlia large and small) in the polybag sold for use as a plant outside the home.

Dahlia is berubi plants. Sweet dahlias contain nearly 70 percent starch in the form of inulin. Pure inulin extracted from dahlia tuber is used in the medical field. When inulin is fermented by certain enzymes or by a soil fungus, inulin is changed to fructose, a sugar that is widely used in food preservation or creation of a syrup. Therefore, the utilization of inulin from dahlia through bioconversion into sugar fructose.

In Indonesia, for commercial purposes, dahlias are cultivated in the highlands of Lembang and Cianjur (West Java).

TERMS growth
5.1. Climate
These plants require abundant sunlight without shade.
5.2. Media Planted 1) Plants can be grown in any sandy clay soil containing humus, has a good air conditioning and crumbly.
2) The acidity of the soil is good for plant growth is between pH = 6.0 to 8.0.

5.3. Altitude Venue
Plants can grow well on high ground with optimum altitude 700-1000 m above sea level.

6.1. Seeding
1) Seeds Seeding Techniques
a) Propagation by seed generative
Performed on the mini to get the color dahlia flowers new and more varied. Seeds come from plants healthy dahlias 5 months old. Direct seed sowing in the nursery that had been prepared. Nursery beds were made on the ground with a width of 1 m and length depend on large areas with a north-south direction. Beds are made from a mixture of humus, cow manure and good soil denganperbandingan 1:1:1. 5 cm high bed. Seed is spread evenly over the bed and covered with a thin layer of soil. In the dry season bed covered with banana leaves that have been washed or clean jute sacks to bed awake humidity. Beds needed to be done in the shade when the seedbed of the rainy season. Shading of transparent plastic 80 cm in height and 60 cm sisit east on the west side. After the seeds germinate and leafy two piece, the cover (banana leaf / sack) is opened. Seedlings maintained until the leafy perfect dipersemaian 2 fruit, root crops at this stage have not touched the bottom of the bed and dipindahtanamkan 18x15 cm transparent polybags containing a mixture of husk and cow manure (6:1). After six strands of leafy plants, carried into the second pindahtanam 30x20 cm transparent polybags containing the same media. Inside the polybag is maintained until flowering plants during the 1.5 to 2 months and is ready for sale.

b) Vegetative Propagation by cuttings conducted at a mini dahlias to earn interest with the same color and danbentuk for large dahlias that can not be seeded. Stekdiambil material from an axillary bud size 70-10 cm. To avoid disease, use a cutting knife / sharp clean knife to cut the shoot. Seeding was conducted in a transparent 30x20 cm polybags containing a mixture of rice husks and manure (6:1) and maintained until ready to sell without dipindahtanam for three days.

c) vegetative propagation of cassava
Performed on a cactus and semi-cactus dahlia. Sweet potatoes were taken from plants aged 7 months. To get the sweet, stems of plants that have finished their first flowering cut to 10 cm from soil surface. Soil excavated and removed along with a sweet main stem.

2) Maintenance Seeding
a) Plants in Nursery
During the nursery plants watered once a day and were not given fertilizer because there's enough food obtained from the beds. Weed weeding should be done with very careful not to damage the still fragile seedlings.

b) in the polybag plants
1-2 plants watered every other day (morning-afternoon) except when it rained. Weeds often grow, if there is weeded revoked or taken by a small hoe premises To prevent pests / diseases, plants sprayed with pesticides Antracol / Basudin two weeks at the turn of kemarauhujan season and rainy season. Gandasil foliar fertilizer NPK and 1 gram given once a week.

6.2. Media Processing Plant
1) Investment in polybags (mini dahlias and dahlia large)
a) Media planting of rice husks and manure (6:1) is mixed evenly.
b) Insert the media into the poly bag 30 x 20 cm to fill 90 percent of the volume.
c) Make a hole in the middle of planting medium, add 1 gram of NPK fertilizer.
d) Enter polybag seedlings from small and medium padatkan around the stem. Watered until moist.
e) Furthermore, given the plant as much as 1 gram of NPK fertilizer every two weeks. Spraying with pesticides and Basudin Antracol do if the visible symptoms of disease.
f) trimming the leaves need to be done so that the interest of good quality. flower thinning aims to earn interest with a maximum size. Flower thinning criteria are:
1. In each of the lateral shoots are only counted up to six flowers to plant the book into three mini Dahlia.
2. In each of the main shoot and lateral shoots consisted of only three to plant Dahlia flowers are great.
2) Establishment bedengan
Beds are made with a width of 70 cm, height 15 cm and a length in accordance with the conditions of land and 55 cm spacing between beds. After the bed is formed, treated soil as deep as 45 cm several times with a hoe. Add as thick as 15 cm of manure (10-15 tonnes / ha) and mixed with 45 cm soil beds. Puree the soil bed to a depth of 15 cm. Trim back to bed.
6.3. Planting Technique

1) Planting Hole Preparation
Planting holes are made deep 20 x 20 x 20 cm at 65-75 cm spacing.
2) How Sweet Investment
Sweet laid flat on the bottom of the hole and cover with soil as thick as 5 cm. From shoots that grow only one or two that are left continue to grow.

6.4. Maintenance of Plant Spacing and stitching

To obtain uniform growth can be done until three weeks after planting. Usually the seeds do not grow perfectly if irrigating late done especially if the hot air. Thinning of interest needs to be done especially if the number of flowers in a stalk too many flowers in order to reach a maximum diameter. In cactus dahlia (white), only one flower on a stalk is left alive, while in the semi-cactus dahlias can be 5-6 flowers.
Conducted in accordance with the growth of weeds and fertilization during pembumbunan nd. Prevention of weed growth can be done with the spread organic mulch between plants. When the plants reach 1 m, plants dibumbun and supported by two bamboo sticks in order not to fall.
Done every 10 days with urea, SP-36 and KCl each 2 grams or 5 grams of NPK. Giving the first 10 days after transplanting. Fertilizer given in the bolt as far as 15 cm from the base of the stem. Cover with soil fertilizer.
Irrigation and Watering
Conducted in accordance plant growth. At the beginning of its growth, the soil around the base of the stem to the point of the outer headers should not be dry. At that time, if necessary plants watered 2-3 times a day depending on weather conditions. After that, watering can be done every five days. Watering is necessary after fertilization.

7. Pests and diseases

7.1. Pest
Silkworm ground (Agrotis ypsilon Hufn.)
Symptoms: caterpillars attacking cassava plants and stems. Silkworm crop growing point or base of the stem or petiole of plants that collapsed and withered stems mainly in the daytime.
Control: performed by killing the caterpillar along with pembubunan and weeding weeds, giving Furadan though not always effective and spraying insecticides or the 3G Indofuran Hostathion.

7.2. Disease

1) Dew flour / Powdery Mildew
Cause: The fungus Oidium tingitanium Sphaetotheca mascularis or Uncinula Necator).
Symptoms: part affected, especially the leaves, covered with a thin white coating such as flour, the leaves will dry and fall.
Control: fungicide Benlate or Rubigan 120 EC. The attack occurred in the transition from rainy to dry season.

2) Virus
Cause: The type of CMV virus, TSV, TSWV and the DMV.
Symptoms: abnormal plant growth so stunted plants.
Control: controlling the growth of vector insects such as aphid or thrips, soak the seeds in hot water, destroying infected plants and spraying insecticides. A better method for eliminating the virus is to use seedlings from tissue culture and detects the presence of virus by ELISA test.

8. P A N E N

Dahlia plants can be harvested flowers and sweet potato tubers are used as sweeteners derived from a large dahlia, cactus or semi cactus dahlia.

8.1. Flowering Plant traits and Age
1) Flowers: three months after planting, the first flowers can be harvested two times a week until four months later. Flowers are ready to be picked has full bloom with a diameter of 10 cm.
2) Sweet: sweet potato crop is harvested at the time was 7 months after planting.
8.2. How To Picking Flowers
1) Flowers: cactus dahlia flowers (lilac) harvested by cutting a 20 cm long flower stalks from the flower base. Semi-cactus dahlia flowers are harvested by cutting a 50 cm long flower stalks from the flower base.
2) Sweet: all plants allowed to grow some nutrients so that leftover food in the main stem can be absorbed by the tuber. Stem is cut to a height of 10 cm from the base of the stem, excavated soil around the stems and sweet lifted together with its trunk.
8.3. Estimated Production
1) Interest: 1 tumbak for planting areas (14 m2), generated as much interest in 1500 bud every week during four months of harvest.
2) Sweet potatoes: large sweet potato and cassava production per stem depending on the type of dahlia. Dahlia cactus produces large sweet and can reach 2 kg / plant. In 10 spears (140 m2) produced 400 kg of sweet potatoes.

1) Interest
Every 50 stalks tied and wrapped in banana leaves, flowers are usually sold directly to the flower market (consumers).
2) Sweet
To get the sugar fructose from dahlia tuber is treated as follows:
1. Sweet potatoes washed, peeled and cut into pieces 1 cm thick.
2. Digodog yam slices with water for 20 minutes.

Raising interest MAWAR

Roses are herbaceous plants such as ornamental flowers with thorny stems. Roses roses flowers known name or the "Queen of Flowers" is a religious symbol or emblem of life in human civilization. Roses originated from mainland China, the Middle East and Eastern Europe. In the development, widespread in temperate regions (sub-tropical) and hot (tropical).

In plant systematics (taxonomy), roses diklasifasikan as follows:
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: spermatophytes
Sub Division: Angiospermae
Class: Dicotyledonae
Order: Rosanales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Rosa
Species: Rosa damascena Mill., R. multiflora Thunb., R. hybrida Hort., and others.

In Indonesia, developing various types of hybrid roses from Holland (the Netherlands). Roses are many interested persons are the type and Medium Hybrid Tea, has quite a lot of flower color variation, from white to red and a high productivity level: 120-280 bud bunga/m2 / year.

Varieties of hybrid roses (Hybrid Tea) which has been planted in Indonesia by PT. Plantation Mangkurajo is: coctail, Diplomat, Idole, Jacaranda, Laminuette, Osiana, Pareo, Samorai, Sonate de Meilland, Sonia, Sonia Sweet, Tineke, Vivaldi, White Success and Yonina. While roses are the type of medium, among others, Golden Times, Jaguar, Sissel, Laser, and Kiss. The advantage of hybrid varieties of roses are durable and attractive colors. Stemmed roses Hybrid Tea type flowers 80-120 cm, 40-60 cm Medium type.

Some rose varieties are recommended introductions in lowland: Cemelot, Frad Winds, Mr. Lincoln, and the Golden Lustee as a cut flower roses. While the varieties of Folk Song, Khatherina Zeimet, Woborn Abbey and Cimacan Salem for garden plants.

1) ornamental plants in parks / open pages (out doors).
2) ornamental plants in pots and penyemarak pengindah living room or hallway.
3) are used as flower pollen at a state ceremony or ritual traditions.
4) extracted oil as perfume ingredients or drugs (on a scale of research in Puslitbangtri).


Regional centers are concentrated in the region rose plants of Alaska or Siberia, India, North Africa and Indonesia. Sentra planting cut flowers, potted plants and sow in Indonesia resulting from the regions of West Java, North Sumatra, Central Java, East Java and Jakarta.

5. TERMS growth

5.1. Climate
1.The wind does not affect the growth of roses.
2. Rainfall for good growth of roses is 1500-3000 mm / year. Requires 5-6 hours of sunlight per day. In the area enough sunshine, roses will be diligent and faster trunked flowering and sturdy. Morning sunlight is better than afternoon sun, which causes the drying plants.
3. Plant roses have a very wide adaptability to the environment grows, it can be grown in temperate regions / sub-tropical regions and in the summer / tropical. Cool air temperature 18-26 degrees C and humidity of 70-80%.

5.2. Planting media
1.Planting is done directly on the land permanently in the garden or in pots. Plant roses suitable on sandy clay (clay content 20-30%), fertile, friable, many organic materials, good aeration and drainage.
2. On the ground latosol andosol which has physical properties and soil fertility is good enough.
3. The ideal soil acidity is pH = 5.5 to 7.0. In acid soil (pH 5.0) need liming Dolomite lime, Calcit atupun Zeagro dose 4-5 tons / hectare.
Giving lime aims to raise soil pH, add the elements Ca and Mg, improve the lives of microorganisms, improving the nodule-root nodules, reduce toxicity of Fe, Mn, and Al, as well as increasing the availability of P and Mo unsurunsur. Porous soil is badly needed by the roots of roses.

5.3. Altitude Venue
Roses grow well at:
1. Altitude 560-800 m asl, the minimum air temperature 16-18 degrees C and a maximum of 28-30 degrees C.
2. Altitude 1100 m asl, the minimum air temperature 14-16 degrees C, maximum 24-27 degrees C.
3. Altitude 1400 m asl, the minimum air temperature from 13.7 to 15.6 degrees C and a maximum of 19.5 to 22.6 degrees C.

In tropical areas like Indonesia, the plants can grow and productive roses blooming in the lowlands to high (mountain) on average 1500 m above sea level.

6.1. Seed Breeding Requirements
In order for seeds to grow well, select healthy seeds by entering into the water (which both will drown, which floats discarded).
Seed Preparation
Preparation stages of seed plants from seed:
a) The selection of fruit - Choose fruit rose from the parent plants which have flowered and the kind of superior productive as you wish.
- Pick fruit that is ripe selected roses (cooked) in a tree.

b) Treatment After ripening - Prepare media in the form of seeding berhumus and sandy soil (1:1).
- Enter the (fill in) the media into the tub seedbed or container that is practical and feasible to use for the seedling.
- Flush with clean water seeding media until quite wet (humid).
- Embed the fruit of roses one by one into the media were buried deep enough seedlings to 0.5 to 1.0 cm.
- Allow the roses to fruit rot on the outer skin of the humid conditions of the media, beraerasi good, and the air temperature around 5 degrees C. Time needed to ripening After treatment ranged from 50-270 days (depending on the type of rose).

Seeds Seeding Techniques
a) Take the (lift) rose seeds from fruits that have been rotting in the seedling media.
b) Select the seeds of good roses, are pithy who drowned when put into water
c) Rinse with clean water rose seeds.
d) Drain the seeds of selected roses quiet place to be planted in nursery tanks.
e) Semaikan roses seed evenly according to the distance between rows and rows 50-10 cm. Seeds will germinate at the age of four weeks after sowing.

Maintenance Seeding / Seeding
a) Pour the rose nursery media continuously 1-2 times a day.
b) Wean (perjarang) seedlings are big enough roses in a small poly bag is already filled with a mixture of soil, sand and organic manure (1:1:1).

Seed removal
Move the seedlings planted roses that have been aged 22 months to the gardens / planting place fixed (permanent).

6.2. Media Processing Plant
Place planting roses can be done in the garden area, garden and in pots. Procedures for preparing land for somewhat different from the rose garden in pots / poly bags. Preparation
a) Preparation of land garden / park - Land to the garden / park land selected roses loose, fertile and receive direct sunlight (open).
- Clean the location of the garden from a wild grass / gravel.

b) Preparation of the media in a pot - your destination growing media in the form of fertile soil, organic fertilizer (manure, compost, TW Super Plus) and sand. Mixed media composition soil, manure, compost and sand, 1:1:1. Soil mixture with 6:1 ratio of Super Plus TW.
- Provide a pot that size is adjusted with the size of the rose plant. The best pots are pots made of soil material and not painted.
- Prepare other supporting materials such as brick or tile fragments or charcoal. These materials can function as a sucker of excess water (drainage) and facilitate any transfer of plants into pots or planting a new place.

c) Filling the planting media into the pot - pot holes Association for the excess water.
- Dampen a pot with enough water to wet.
- Fill in the fractions of red bricks / tiles / charcoal at the base of ± 1 cm-thick pot until the third part of the pot, the water drainage hole in the bottom of the pot should not clogged.
- Load the litter (humus) ± 1cm thick evenly over the layer of red bricks / tiles.
- Fill in the growing media mixture of soil, sand and manure / compost (1:1:1) or a mixture of soil with organic fertilizer TW Super Plus (6:1) plus a little ash kitchen. Charging the media until 90% full, or 0.5 to 1.0 cm below the upper limit of the pot surface. Pots ready for planting seeds (plants) of roses.

Land Opening
a) Land hoe / ± 30 cm deep plowed until crumbly.
b) Allow the soil for 15-30 days dikeringanginkan to mature and free from toxic gases.

Formation bedengan
Create a bed-size bed with a width of 100-120 cm, height 30 cm, 30-40 cm spacing between beds, and length depending on state land. When the rose garden will be designed asymmetrically, then the preparation of land made bentukbentuk desired, for example circular (round) or guludan-guludan which is compatible with the surrounding environment.

Organic fertilizer (manure / compost) 20-30 tons / hectare or Super Plus TW 4-5 tons / ha allotted evenly distributed and mixed with the soil, adjusting the land (bed). Organic fertilizer with the inserted (loaded) into the planting hole average of 1-2 kg / plant.

6.3. Planting Technique Determination of Planting Pattern
Make the planting hole at a distance of 60 × 60 cm or 70 × 70 cm, depending on the type of roses and the soil fertility.

Planting Hole Preparation
To create a curved hole in order to obtain the necessary spade-shaped cylindrical hole. Hole size 45 × 45 × 45 cm. The depth of the well that is when the plant is placed in the hole, the position of the main branch (bud union) is located parallel to the ground surface. Root roses can not penetrate the soil too deeply, it is not necessary to dig the soil too deeply, just 45-55 cm.

At the time of making the hole in the surface soil (top soil), sub-soil is collected separately, it will be used to cover the hole again. When the area was covered with grass, should be taken in the form of slabs and placed in the shade, for use as fertilizer, to enter it into the hole. Plate is placed upside-down grass. Top soil mixed with organic materials (such as compost, green manure, animal manure and so forth) the comparison of four parts soil and one part organic material. Ditimbuni hole sub-soil mixed with organic material (in total more than the mix for the top soil) and super phosphate (can also use bone meal) 20%. The number of super phosphate 1,5-2 singk per 10 m2 of land, 1.5 to 3 kg of bone meal per 10 m2. Hole filled with top soil and organic material to form a mound.

Investment mode
When planting roses are at the beginning of the rainy season (when the state of water is adequate can be done throughout the season / year. Crops are planted roses in the form of seeds cabutan (without soil), and seedlings from polybags.

How to planting roses cabutan:
a) Unloading of rose seedlings from nurseries in cabutan.
b) Cut some stems and branches, leaving 20-25 cm in order to plant a shrub habitus (short).
c) Cut some of the roots with sharp pruning shears and sterile.
d) Soak seeds in water or in solution of the rose plant growth regulator (growth hormone) as Dekamon 1-2 cc / liter for 15-30 minutes.
e) Planting seeds of roses in the middle of the planting hole and spread roots arranged in all directions. Fill (embankment) with the soil to limit stem base of the neck.
f) Padatkan soil around the plant stem roses slowly so akarakarnya can direct contact with ground water.
g) Flush the soil around the roots of plants until wet.
h) Place the temporary shelter of woven bamboo or other materials to protect the plants from the scorching sun rose in the afternoon.

Planting seeds of roses from different polybag cabutan planting roses. Rose seedlings from polybags dipindahtanamkan completely with soil and roots. Procedures for planting roses from the polybags are as follows:
a) Pour media in polybags containing the seeds of roses until quite wet.
b) Remove the polybag and then reverse the position with a bend-bend to the bottom of rose seedlings with soil and roots were removed (out) from the polybag. When a large poly bag, then spending rose seeds can tear or cut through the poly bag.
c) Embed rose seedlings into the planting hole that has been prepared in advance. Location of rose seeds right in the middle of the planting hole, then embankment with compacted soil to the brim as he slowly
d) Flush the soil around plant roots rose up quite wet. Seeds Direct roses will be fresh and grown without withering or break through first.

6.4. Plant Maintenance Weeding
Weeding activities usually in conjunction with fertilization in order to save costs and labor. Wild grass that grows in the ditch / moat between the beds cleaned in order not to become a den of pests and diseases.
Weeding once a month (depending on the growth of weeds), by removing the weeds (weeds) carefully so as not to damage the roots of plants or cleaning with tools kored / hoe.

The type and dose (dosage) of fertilizer is recommended to plant roses of NPK (5-10-5) as much as 5 grams / plant. When fertilized NPK slow shoot growth at the ratio 10:10:5, when the stalk is weak NPK ratio of 5:15:5.

The type and dose of other fertilizers are composed of a mixture of fertilizers: 90-135 kg N plus 400 kg plus 120 kg P2O5 K2O/ha/tahun or equivalent to 200-300 kg plus 840 kg Urea TSP KCL plus 250 kg / ha / year. Based on the results of Horticulture Research Institute (Balitro), a plant cultivated roses need five grams of NPK / tree at planting time or 7-15 days after planting.

Subsequent fertilization continuously once every 3-4 months, depending on the state of plant growth. Dose and type of fertilizer that is recommended is a mixture of nitrogen fertilizer N plus 600 kg 1000 kg P2O5 Phosphate Potassium plus 400 kg K2O/ha/tahun or equivalent to ± 1 350 kg of urea plus TSP KCL 2100 kg plus 800 kg / ha / year. Each time the fertilizer is given 1 / 4 - 1 / 3 dose of 337.5 to 450 kg of urea fertilizer added 525-700 kg of TSP added 100-133 kg of KCl per hectare. Fertilizer should be at the time before flowering, flowering, and after the flowers wither. Ways of fertilizer with the sows in small and shallow paritparit between rows of crops or plants around the canopy, then covered with thin soil and watered immediately until quite wet.

Irrigation and Watering
Irrigation and watering done:
a) In the early phase of growth (around age 1-2 months after planting), carried out continuously every day 1-2 times. The next irrigation was gradually reduced, or depending on the weather and soil type (medium).
b) When a good supply of water in the morning and evening, when the air temperature and water evaporation from the soil is not too high.
c) The method of irrigation is by watering evenly using a tool emrat (yells).

7. Pests and disease
7.1. Pest
1. Aphids (Macrosiphum rosae Linn., Aphids)
Aphids, small, ± 0.6 mm long, green, sometimes winged. Attacked shoots, often attached to twigs and flower buds.
Symptoms:: suck fluids (cell) plant, causing abnormal symptoms, the leaf or shoot so curly / shrink. Can act as vectors of viruses and often leave the sweet honey liquid attached to the leaf surface, thereby becoming the cause of sooty mildew (Capnodium sp.).
Control: maintaining hygiene (sanitation), garden and sprayed insecticide Decis 2.5 EC or 25 EC Buldok, Confidor 200 LC, Curacron 500 EC, 15 EC Fastac at the recommended concentration.
2. Beetle
Three types of beetles, the rose plant invaders: Chafer beetles (Macrodactylis subspinosus), Fuller (Autoserica castanca) and Curculio (Rhyncite bicolor). Chafer beetles are yellowish brown body length of about 12 mm, beetle Fuller grayish brown color, length 10 mm. Curculio beetle red black striped ± 5 mm.
Symptoms:: eat the leaves, stems and flowers, so bolong-bolong/rusak a part that was attacked. Larvae often eat the roots of plants.
Control: to collect and destroy these pests and sprayed with chemical insecticides way Hostathion 40 EC, Decis 2.5 EC, Ambush 2 EC, Elsan 60 EC, and others at the recommended concentration.
3. Snail fur
Body greenish white, ± 12 mm long, covered with coarse hairs.
Symptoms:: at the larval stage, invasive plants by eating the lower leaves that causes the leaves to bone perforated leaves.
Control: eroded cocoons attached to plants, and sprayed with insecticide Brestan 60 (Moluskasida) at the recommended concentration.
4. Mite (Tetranychus telarius)
Similar to the spider mites, very small ± 0.3 mm, red / green / yellow. Reproduce quickly when the weather is humid and hot, and poorly ventilated.
Symptoms:: attacking plants by sucking plant cell fluids, on the leaves / shoots, causing the red dots yellow / gray-brown.
Control: sprayed insecticide-akarisida like ommittee Kelthane 570 EC or EC 200 or EC 200 Meothrin Mitac 50 EC, 50 EC Nissuron and others at the recommended concentration.
5. Thrips
These pests are so small ± 1 mm, color brown kuning-oranye/kuning.
Symptoms:: destroy / suck liquid plant cells, especially flowers, leaves and branches. Enjoys a yellow rose / other bright.
Control: pruning heavily infected parts of the plants and sprayed with insecticide Mesurol 50 WP, Tokuthion 500 EC, the Pegasus 500 SC, Decis 2.5 EC and others at the recommended concentration.
6. Root nematodes (Meloidgyne sp.)
Root nematodes very small size (only visible with a microscope).
Symptoms:: attacking the roots of the rose plant, can penetrate into the stems, causing stunted growth symptoms, sometimes wilt (loss of strength to grow) and there is a rash at the root.
Control: crop rotation, planting media sterilization, and using chemical substances (parasitising kidney): Furadan 3 G, Rugby 10 G or G Indofuran education at planting.
7. Other pests:
a) Caterpillar leaf (Udea rubigalis), attacking the leaves and flower buds that become damaged / perforated-perforated.
Control: sprayed insecticide Hostathion 40 EC, Decis 2.5 EC, Dekasulfan 350 EC, 50 EC or Confidor Nomolt 70 WAS at the recommended concentration.
b) Insects night (Night feeding insect), attacking the leaves and flowers.
Control: sprayed with insecticides used to control the leaf worm.
c) Insect suction plant cells (Leaf hoppers), attacking the leaves until the white spots in a circle.
Control: sprayed with insecticides used to control the leaf worm.
d) Flies (Dasyncura rhodophaga), small body size of 1.2 mm, color brown kemerah-merahan/kekuning-kuningan. Eggs laid on new shoots, after the larvae will destroy / eat the shoots. Larvae drop to the ground, then within one week turned into flies.
Control: Heavily attacked plants destroyed by fire, maintain the cleanliness of the garden, and spraying insecticide Agrohion 50 EC, 50 EC or Ofunack Meothrin 40 EC at the recommended concentration.
e) Ticks stem (Aulacaspis rosae) from the families Coccidae, small size 3 mm,
Symptoms: sucking liquids plant cells, the leaves and stems. Affected part will wither, slowly dried (dead).
Control: prune affected parts of the plants to be destroyed / burned and sprayed with insecticide Decis 2.5 EC, Mitac 200 EC, Monitor 200 LC or Orthene 75 SP at the recommended concentration.
f) a small weevil (Small Carpenter bees), small body size 8 mm long, black-metallic,
Symptoms: hollow out the inside as well as damaging the stem. Plants attacked by the wilt.
Control: cut the plants that were attacked to be burned or sprayed with insecticides: Decis 2.5 EC, 50 EC Atabron, Buldok Bassa 25 EC or 50 EC at the recommended concentration.

7.2. Disease
1. Black spot
Cause: The fungus (mold) Marsonina rosae (Lib.) Lind. ("Black Spot").
Symptoms: leaf spots of concentrated black-toothed edges. Gradually spots ± 1 cm diameter fused, so that leaves the surrounding tissue becomes yellow. Can also occur in the leaf stalk, stem, flower base, petals and flower crown. Be easily attacked by leaf fall. Non-chemical control: pruning diseased parts of plants, and maintain a healthy garden (sanitation).
Chemical control: spraying fungicide which is active barium propineb and Mankozeb at the recommended concentration.
2. Leaf rust
Cause: The fungus (mold) Phragmidium mucronatum (Pers. ex Pr.) Schlecht.
Symptoms: orange spots reddish on the underside of the leaves, on the side of the leaf spots are angular reddish color. Heavily infected leaves that will be easy to fall (fall). Non-chemical control: cutting / trimming sick leaves were destroyed.
Chemical control: spraying fungicide which is active barium Zineb or Maneb at the recommended concentration.
3. Powder Mildew
Cause: The fungus Oidium sp.
Symptoms: There flour / white coating on the surface of the lower and upper leaves. Leaves / plant parts are affected will change color from green to reddish, gradually kekuningkuningan and eventually the leaves fall off quickly (autumn).
Non-chemical control: pluck the leaves are attacked to be destroyed and maintain a healthy garden (sanitation).
Chemical control: Sulfur fungicide sprayed, or containing the active ingredient Pirazifos.
4. Swollen stem base
Cause: The bacterium Agrobacterium tumefacien (EF Sm et Town.) Conn.
Symptoms: swelling at the base of the stem near the soil surface, so the plants become stunted and eventually die.
Non-chemical control: remove diseased plants to be destroyed and when the plant maintenance (pruning), using scissors to cut a clean and sterile.
Chemical Control: sprayed by barium active bactericide Streptomycin or Oksitetrasikin.
5. Mosaic (piebald)
Causes: viruses (Rose mosaic virus) (Rose mosaic virus).
Symptoms: leaf yellowing and piebald, the bones of their leaves like nets.
Control: healthy planting, maintenance intensive crops, spraying insecticides to control insect vectors, and unpack (eradication) of sick plants to be destroyed to prevent spread to other plants.
6. Leaf spot
Cause: The two pathogens, namely fungus Cercospora rosicola Pass. and Alternaria sp.
Symptoms: cercospora attack brown spots on older leaves, whereas Alternaria blotch blackish color.
Control nonkimiawi: cut / pluck the leaves are a pain to be destroyed and maintain a healthy garden (sanitation).
Chemical control: spraying fungicide containing the active ingredient of Copper (Cu).
7. Mushrooms poison
Cause: The fungus Corticium salmonicolor (Berk. et Br.) Tjokr.
Symptoms: There are red crust on the trunk, and slowly the stem will rot and die.
Control nonkimiawi: peel the skin and curry plant part is sick, then smeared paint / tar, can also cut the stems at the same time a severe infection.
Chemical control: spraying fungicide which is active barium Tridemorf.
8. Decay rate
Cause: The fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers. Fr.
Symptoms: flower bulbs that have been opened in brown rot, and nod-black nodules.
Control nonkimiawi: start blooming flowers wrapped with wax paper bags or plastic and post-harvest handling of flowers as possible.
Chemical control: spraying fungicide which is active barium benomyl.
9. Physiological diseases
Cause: nutrient deficiency (deficiency), lack of nitrogen, Phosfor, and Potassium.
Symptoms: nitrogen deficiency causes leaf color hujau-young (pale) yellow and the plant growth became slower (dwarf). Phosfor deficiency causes plants to become thin and stunted, while the less potassium leaves to dry out along the edge / rim.
Control: a balanced fertilizer, especially the element of N, P2O5, and K2O fertilizers or sprayed leaves high haranya elemental content in accordance with the symptoms of deficiency.

8. P A N E N

8.1. Flowering Plant traits and Age
The characteristics of roses ready to be picked (harvested) for the purpose as a cut flower: flower flowers full bloom and not a normal size. For the purpose of defloration sow flowers on stage after full bloom.
The ideal harvest time is morning or late afternoon (when the air temperature and evaporation of water is not too high). In several centers of cut flower producers do the plucking roses at night.
8.2. How To Picking Flowers
How to harvest roses is to cut the flower stalk at the bottom (base) or is included with several leaf stalks. Cutting tools roses can be a knife or scissors to cut sharp, clean and sterile.
8.3. Harvest Period
Rose plants from cuttings or seed grafting can be harvested at the age of 4-5 months after planting depending on variety and fertility or growth. This disposal will be productive for years 3-5 years range.
8.4. Production Forecast
Rose plants cultivated intensively than species / varieties can produce 120000-280000 bud / hectare / year. This production level depends on rose varieties, soil fertility, distance and level of care for plants in the garden.


9.1. Collection
1) The collection of postharvest cut flower roses:
a) Collect the flowers immediately after harvest and enter into a container (bucket) containing clean water. The position of the flower stalk is set under water.
b) Transport the entire harvest to the collection points to facilitate the subsequent handling.

2) The collection of roses Postharvest sow:
Collect flowers freshly picked roses in a container (plastic baskets, winnowing / bucket of clean water).

9.2. Sorting and grading
1) Sort of damaged flower, wither and rot separated individually.
2) Classify according to type of flower, flower size, flower stem length and flower color of the uniform. Classification based on long flower stalks are separated into two grades. Grade A flower with a stem length of more than 60 cm, grade B stem length of less than 60 cm.

9.3. Storage
1) To cut flower roses, flower store that has been packed into the room-temperature storage (cold storage) with a stable 90% relative humidity.
2) To sow roses, save it in a place / room shady, cool, moist, and good air circulation.

9.4. Packaging and Transportation
1) Tie the flowers that have been classified and incorporated into a bond-bond. Each bond contains 20 flower stalks.
2) Pack the flowers had ties into the baskets / boxes of cardboard and good air circulation.
3) Transport of roses to the place of the target market.
4) Cover pangkai flower stalks with damp cotton or enter into a plastic bottle of water, primarily for the purpose of long-distance shipping.
5) Add the crushed ice around the container (container) rose to the condition of conveyance sufficient room cool and moist.